Focus on the development of digital civilization and build safe and credible artificial intelligence

  In today’s world, digital technology is fully integrated into all fields and the whole process of human society, and artificial intelligence has become an important symbol of human civilization and progress. At the same time, if digital technology loses its norms and constraints, it may become a "Pandora’s box" and bring certain threats to the real society. On June 26th, the main forum of Nishan Dialogue on Digital Civilization in world internet conference was held in Qufu, Jining, Shandong Province. During the conference, Chinese and foreign guests made suggestions on the topic of "building safe and credible artificial intelligence".

  Artificial intelligence will reshape the digital world.

  "The opportunities for artificial intelligence are enormous. However, with the accelerated application of artificial intelligence around the world, it is necessary for governments and organizations to consider how to best use this technology to benefit mankind and the planet. " Hong Yaozhuang, CEO of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSMA), said that on a global scale, artificial intelligence is gradually emerging as a powerful force with the potential to change enterprises and society.

  Mohammed bin Amo, Secretary General of Arab Information and Communication Technology Organization, said that artificial intelligence has revolutionary potential, which can influence and even change all aspects of life, promote innovation and make life more convenient. For example, improving efficiency through automation, providing accurate information to support wise decision-making, improving customer service and customer experience, etc.

  Talking about the rapid development of artificial intelligence, Li Yanhong, founder, chairman and CEO of Baidu, was also deeply touched. He said that in the past year, artificial intelligence has made rapid progress at all levels, such as technology, products and applications. The big model will penetrate into more and more fields. The deep integration of the digital economy and the real economy driven by the big model will make the real economy stronger, create considerable incremental value, and bring about profound changes in economic and social development and industry.

  "The birth of this GPT big model represents the arrival of general artificial intelligence and strong artificial intelligence, and it is a real emergence of intelligence." Zhou Hongyi, the founder of 360 Group, believes that the artificial intelligence model has solved all the problems of natural language processing with a set of models and algorithms, and has evolved from perception to cognition, and can understand words and languages, make analysis and planning, and traditional algorithms will be replaced. In the future, in many important fields such as autonomous driving and robot control, large language models will show their talents.

  Zhang Yong, Chairman and CEO of Alibaba Group and Alibaba Cloud Intelligent Group, said that in recent days, the general big model of global technology companies has been in full swing, pushing artificial intelligence to a new stage of development. He believes that the big model is accelerating the arrival of the intelligent era, and the real economy is the main battlefield of intelligence.

  "We are witnessing the accelerated development of artificial intelligence." Bart selman, the former chairman of the Association for the Promotion of Artificial Intelligence and a professor at Cornell University, said that GPT-4 has realized the first form of general artificial intelligence and introduced a new entity, which will inevitably change many existing social structures and mechanisms, and human beings need to rethink the impact of artificial intelligence.

  The governance challenges brought by artificial intelligence cannot be ignored.

  "We urgently need to develop and apply artificial intelligence with a high sense of responsibility to ensure that it has a positive impact on the whole society." Muhammad Ben Amo said that while enjoying the benefits brought by artificial intelligence, we must recognize that it will bring many social and ethical challenges, which need to be solved from the beginning.

  The big model of artificial intelligence not only brings universal development opportunities to the development of human society, but also brings many governance challenges, which cannot be ignored. Li Yanhong believes that the application of new technologies often precedes norms. Only by establishing and improving laws, regulations, institutional systems and ethics to ensure the healthy development of artificial intelligence can we create a good innovation ecology. Focusing on the future, while paying attention to preventing risks, we should also establish fault-tolerant and error-correcting mechanisms simultaneously, and strive to achieve a dynamic balance between standardization and development.

  In Zhou Hongyi’s view, the public big model has many shortcomings, such as lack of industry depth, easy to cause internal data leakage, unable to guarantee the authenticity of the content, unable to control the cost of the enterprise and so on. He believes that the application of large models in enterprise-level scenarios should adhere to the "auxiliary mode". However, if the GPT big model wants to be "safe and controllable", the key lies in whether the enterprise can really control it and let people’s will play a key role in the whole decision-making loop.

  At present, the global competition of artificial intelligence has entered a fever pitch. In this situation, Zhang Yong said that everyone wants to make a difference in it, but the technical and ethical issues in related fields still need to be clarified. It is also important to put on a safe brake while stepping on the accelerator. "The evolution of artificial intelligence technology must conform to social norms and bring more beauty to mankind. While pursuing technological advancement, we must adhere to the sense of social responsibility. "

  "Building a safe and credible artificial intelligence" has gradually become an industry consensus.

  Walter Fumei, Chairman of the Joint Technical Committee on Network Security and Data Protection of european committee for standardization and European Electrotechnical Standardization Committee, said that the success of artificial intelligence standardization requires a common definition of artificial intelligence vocabulary among countries, which will promote the common understanding of safe and trusted artificial intelligence.

  Enterprise-level scenarios need to build a proprietary large model that is "safe, credible, controllable and easy to use". So how to build such a proprietary big model? Zhou Hongyi said that several principles need to be adhered to: the principle of security, and enterprise-level applications must be a large model of security; Credibility principle to solve the shortcomings of accuracy and real-time performance of large models; Controllable principle, the large model should be positioned as an auxiliary tool to ensure that people are on the loop; Easy-to-use principle, solving the problem of easy-to-use needs "digital assistant with soul"; The principle of inclusiveness makes the big model a productivity tool that everyone can use.

  There are many uncertainties in innovation, some of which can be predicted before they happen; Some problems arise in development and need to be solved while developing, and solved by development. Zhang Yong said that "building safe and credible artificial intelligence" has gradually become an industry consensus, and relevant laws and regulations have been gradually improved, which has cultivated a good soil and environment for the sustainable development of technology and industry.

  Artificial intelligence will lead a new wave of technological innovation. Digital technologies such as 5G mobile communication, industrial Internet, big data and artificial intelligence have changed the way people produce and live. Liu Liehong, chairman of China United Network Communications Group Co., Ltd. said that it is the common goal of the whole society to let all people share the dividends and achievements of the development of digital civilization.

  Muhammad Ben Amo believes that the future of artificial intelligence is full of hope, and it should be built around five aspects: privacy, transparency, responsibility and accountability, robustness and flexibility. In addition, we should establish a moral framework and give priority to human welfare through people-oriented design, so as to contribute to the sustainable development of safe and credible artificial intelligence.(Guangming. com reporter Li Fei Lei Yuxin)

On June 1 ST, let’s talk about those "dangerous things" about children

Every parent attaches great importance to the healthy growth of children. They will be very careful in eating, wearing and using. Today is Children’s Day, so let’s talk about the "dangerous things" about children.

Toy articles

Children can’t grow up without toys, such as dolls, building blocks and water guns, but not all toys are safe and reliable. Recently, China Consumers Association invited experts from the Secretariat of the National Toy Standardization Committee to analyze and sort out the injuries caused by common dangerous toys, and listed the magnetic beads that have been selling well around online e-commerce and schools and kindergartens in recent years (if children swallow two or more, they will attract each other in the digestive system and exert pressure on the intestinal wall). Among them, the most common dangerous toy injuries are mechanical physical injuries, chemical injuries and injuries caused by playing non-toy products by mistake.

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1. Small toy parts are easy to fall off and there is danger of swallowing and suffocation.

Small ornaments and accessories, such as buttons and marbles, which are easy to fall off in some unqualified toys, are easy to be swallowed by young children or stuffed into their nostrils, resulting in the risk of swallowing foreign bodies and suffocation.

For example, toys with marbles that are easy to fall off, magnetic beads, etc. Children who swallow two or more powerful magnets or strong magnets and other ferromagnetic objects (iron, cobalt and nickel) will be absorbed by another magnet (or ferromagnetic object) in the digestive system and exert pressure on the intestinal wall, which may cause gastrointestinal perforation or intestinal obstruction, and may be life-threatening in severe cases. In many cases, these magnetic components need to be removed by surgery, which will cause permanent damage to children’s digestive tract.

2, toys are dangerous, sharp edges are dangerous to puncture.

Some inferior toys have sharp edges, sharp points, rough burrs and other protrusions on the surface, or the toy structure is fragile, forming sharp small parts, which are very easy to stab children.

For example, some products of fingertip gyroscopes have sharp edges and sharp tips that can be touched, which may cause injuries such as scratches and pricks. Bouncing frog toys are made of thin iron sheets and contain dangerous sharp edges.

3. There is a danger of chemical pollution when toys are made of inferior materials.

Common ones are plush toys filled with unsterilized waste materials, colorful colored mud, dolls made of inferior plastics, etc. Their sanitary conditions and the migration of chemical harmful substances all pose potential dangers to children’s health.

For example, the "crystal mud" sold well in small shops around the school, some of which contain more than a certain amount of borax, may enter the human body through children’s oral and skin contact, and chronic poisoning may occur.

4. Non-toy products are mistakenly used as toys, resulting in injuries.

Children are naturally active and will use some items in daily life as toys. This kind of improper use hides great danger. For example, children’s misuse of the "laser pointer" leads to vision loss, and another typical misuse case is water sprite, also known as sea baby, bubble bead and water-absorbing bullet. This material is used for water conservation in potted plants, indoor decoration and so on. It may be mistaken for food by children, leading to swallowing or inhalation by children, suffocation, intestinal obstruction, intestinal dilatation, secondary infection, water and electrolyte disorder, and even intestinal perforation and necrosis, which may be life-threatening at any time.

5. Don’t buy and use toys according to their age.

Children of different ages have great differences in physical development and cognitive ability. Therefore, it may pose a threat to children’s safety to choose suitable products according to their age and violate the applicable age limit.

Game article

It is children’s nature to love to play. Parents playing games with their children can promote parent-child relationship, but some games have hidden risks and even threaten children’s lives. Recently, Ding Zongyi, an expert on children’s accidents and honorary president of Bayi Children’s Hospital affiliated to Army General Hospital, reminded that it is best not to play the following games with children.

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Throwing connection

Some parents like to throw their children into the air and catch them, which makes them happy. Ding Zongyi said that infants’ limbs and organs are immature, and this kind of game can easily cause harm to children. After the child is thrown up, it falls quickly and receives a great impact. The undeveloped brain tissue and the hard skull touch each other, which is likely to cause subarachnoid hemorrhage. This kind of brain damage is often not discovered by parents, and it will have a negative impact on the child’s intellectual development in the future.

"Swing" and "Pulling Radish"

Some parents will play "swinging" and "pulling radish" by holding their children’s hands or necks, thinking that it can promote their growth. Ding Zongyi said that growing up is the result of the division and proliferation of bone cells, and these two games only mechanically pull muscles and joints, so the height will not change. When the child’s head is pulled upward, the cervical vertebra may be pulled and even paraplegia may be caused; Playing "swinging" may cause dislocation or fracture of joints.

forward roll

This is a bed game that many children like to play before going to bed. Parents often think that mattresses are soft and will not hurt their children. However, in Ding Zongyi’s view, only through special training can this movement accurately grasp the technical points. Children of several years old do not have strong control over posture, and their limbs curl up and their center of gravity changes constantly during the rollover. Once they make mistakes, their cervical vertebrae and limbs are easily injured.

Riding on the neck

We can often see some fathers riding their children around their necks to see the scenery in the streets or parks. Ding Zongyi believes that it is worth encouraging parents to accompany their children to travel, but they should pay attention to the way of accompanying them. Children riding on their parents’ necks have a high position, unstable center of gravity, and are easily attracted by distant scenery, and may be distracted, unstable and fall. Therefore, in crowded places, parents should hold their children’s hands or hold them up instead of riding their necks.

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Some parents like to play head-to-head games with their children. According to the analysis of Dante Zongyi, the fontanel of the child has not been completely closed. In the process of pushing the head, the external force is applied to the head, and the intracranial pressure increases, which will affect the brain development to a certain extent. In the game, it is not easy for parents to master the strength and direction of force, which is likely to cause injuries such as cervical spine damage and retinal detachment.

Eating articles

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Two or three-year-old children, even if they don’t stumble when they are just toddlers, always fall in all kinds of fancy ways, which makes their parents doubt life in minutes.

If you are in a hurry and suddenly run, you will definitely fall. However, if you are eating when you run, and you still have sharp or fragile things in your hands, or chopsticks and spoons in your mouth, it is really too dangerous.

For example, a 3-year-old boy in Wuhan fell with a bowl while eating, and his stomach was cut open by fragments of a porcelain bowl, and his small intestine was nearly 60 cm long outside the abdominal cavity.

For example, a 2-year-old boy is running around the living room with chopsticks, and his grandmother is chasing him to feed. Hearing grandma say "grandma is going to catch up", he hurried to speed up the pace, and as a result, he fell face down to the ground, and chopsticks were inserted into his mouth alive. Chopsticks are inserted into the body for about 12cm, and the surrounding tissues are squeezed, resulting in the displacement of occipital artery, and the chopsticks are very close to carotid sheath, only 2mm, but the chopsticks do not directly stab the carotid artery.

Accidents like this are too numerous to mention. Therefore, parents must take good care of their children.

1. Set good rules when eating, and don’t run around casually.

2. Don’t give children chopsticks, spoons, forks and other tableware and knives as toys, especially when children are walking and playing, remember not to hold sharp objects.

3. When choosing tableware, try not to use porcelain bowls, glass bowls, stainless steel bowls and other fragile and scalding tableware for children to eat. It is best to choose plastic bowls and chopsticks with suction cups at the bottom, and suck them on the table without moving them to prevent cuts and burns.

4. Children under 5 years old have poor dental development and chewing ability. Try not to put nuts (peanuts, melon seeds, cashews) and other foods at home. Or children must be careful not to chase, laugh and play when eating, and not to play with food or toys in their mouths.

5. In the event of an accident of foreign body insertion, parents must be calm, do not pull out the foreign body without authorization, keep the foreign body inactive to prevent secondary injury, and then go to the hospital as soon as possible.

You can do this if you encounter an accident.

Being active is a child’s nature. In life, accidents such as bumps, scratches, sprains and animal bites may occur. Especially in summer, the clothes on the body are reduced, and a large area of skin is exposed outside, and the chance of injury will increase. How to deal with such an unexpected situation and what should you pay attention to? It is necessary to master some first aid methods.

Do not use alcohol and mercurochrome for scratches and cuts.

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Scratches on the left and cuts on the right.

Children like to jump and run around, and it is easy to scratch or cut. When this happens, don’t use alcohol, mercurochrome or purple syrup to treat the wound.

Although alcohol has strong bactericidal ability, it also has strong irritation. For the damaged tissue, it is not appropriate to disinfect it directly with alcohol, but only for the skin around the wound. And mercurochrome is not recommended, because mercurochrome is 2% mercury bromide red water solution, and people who are allergic to mercury may also cause contact dermatitis due to the use of mercurochrome. In addition, the color of the wound treated with red syrup and purple syrup often covers up the injury. If you go to see a doctor, the doctor will deal with it first, which will cause secondary pain to the child.

So what is the correct way to deal with it? When you encounter a scratch, you should first wash the wound with flowing water to wash out the foreign body in the wound. Then disinfect with iodophor, and then wrap it with medical gauze. If it is in summer, you don’t need to wrap it in gauze.

If the wound is deep and accompanied by bleeding, hemostasis measures should be taken and the bandage should be tight. See a doctor immediately afterwards.

Don’t scribble toothpaste and sesame oil on burns.

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Three grades of burns and scalds

Burns are divided into three grades, and it is more helpful to recognize the grades of burns for first aid. First degree scald, obvious pain, no edema and red skin. Second degree scald, blister formation, local wetness and pain. Third degree scald, local dryness, brown skin and no pain.

When the child accidentally burns, he should quickly avoid the heat source, and then rinse the burned area with cold water for about 15 minutes. If the scald area is relatively large and the pain is obvious, it can be soaked in water for 15-30 minutes. If it is a facial burn, you can use water of about 20℃ for cold compress.

Secondly, after flushing, cut the clothes on the injured part to avoid making the injured part worse. Then gently cover the injured area with clean gauze. In addition, the range that everyone can cover with one hand is 1% of the whole body. If the burn area is within 1% of the first degree burn, it can be treated with scald medicine and observed at home. If the burn area exceeds 1%, no matter how many burns, it needs to be sent to the nearest hospital. Don’t deal with scalded blisters by yourself.

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Five tips for dealing with burns: washing, taking off, soaking, covering and sending.

Special reminder is, don’t smear toothpaste, soy sauce, vegetable oil and other folk prescription items in everyone’s mouth. Applying these things will only aggravate the condition. In addition, ice water and ice compress are absolutely not allowed.

Don’t touch the injured part when spraining.

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If the child is accidentally sprained, the injured part should be laid flat first, and it should not be stressed. When the pain is relieved, let the child gently twist the injured part. If you move, it means soft tissue injury. If you can’t move, consider it a fracture. At this time, it is necessary to use a small board or a thicker book to fix the injured part.

If the fracture site bleeds, it needs to stop bleeding. Tighten the upper part of the wound blood vessel with gauze, and take the child to see a doctor immediately after simple treatment.

Don’t miss the 24-hour golden vaccination period for pet bites.

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Children naturally like cats and dogs. Although pets are docile now, they should not be careless. If a child is bitten by a pet, in addition to local soft tissue and muscle damage, it is even more frightening to be afraid of rabies.

If you are bitten by a pet and bleed, first of all, don’t stop bleeding. Rinse with tap water to wash away some bacteria and pathogens left in the wound as much as possible. Then the sooner you get rabies vaccine, the better. Don’t miss the 24-hour golden vaccination period.

If it is licked by a pet, observe the licked skin and see if there is any wound. If there is, you need to get rabies vaccine at the first time. In addition, the process of rabies vaccine injection is divided into five needles, which are the first day, the third day, the seventh day, the fourteenth day and the thirtieth day, a total of five times. After five shots of vaccine, you can effectively protect your body.

Don’t let the child look up with a nosebleed.

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Correct treatment of nosebleeds: lean forward and twist your nose.

For children with nosebleeds, don’t let them look up or raise their arms on the opposite side. The correct way should be to lean forward and twist your nose for 3-5 minutes to see if it stops. If it doesn’t stop, knead it in the same position for another 3-5 minutes.

If nosebleeds repeatedly, you should go to a doctor to see if it is caused by vascular malformation or other diseases.

Don’t beat your chest if you swallow a foreign body.

Foreign bodies in trachea are more likely to occur in young children. Because the epiglottic cartilage of children’s trachea and food is immature and its function is not perfect. Plus, children are curious about everything, and it is easy to put small things in their mouths.

When a child accidentally eats a foreign body, the airway is obstructed. Parents should sit down and let the child lie prone on their parents’ legs, with the upper chest and head hanging down. Parents should fix the child with one hand and pat the back between the two shoulder blades with the other hand to cough up foreign bodies in the airway.

If you are a big child, you can also use standing posture. Hold the child’s abdomen from behind, encircle his waist and abdomen with his arms, make a fist with one hand, and press the heart of the fist inward between the victim’s navel and ribs; Press the other hand on the fist, and squeeze both hands inward and upward rapidly and forcefully, repeatedly until the obstruction is spit out.

Source: Beijing Morning Post, China Women’s Daily, The Paper, Chutian Metropolis Daily WeChat WeChat official account.

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