Nine tips on Double Ninth Festival: Why is it also called Ascending Festival?

  BEIJING, Beijing, October 4 (Reporter Shangguan Yun) The Double Ninth Festival, a traditional festival with a long history in China, has always been highly regarded.

  Cheng Peng, an assistant researcher at the Institute of Literature, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, believes that climbing high to enjoy autumn and giving thanks to respect for the elderly are two important themes of the Double Ninth Festival. In addition, there are activities such as sunbathing in autumn, flying kites, eating Chongyang cakes and drinking chrysanthemum wine.

  How did the name of Double Ninth Festival come from?

  Double Ninth Festival is also called Ascending Festival, Double Ninth Festival, Chrysanthemum Festival and so on, which means peace, health and longevity.

Data Map: Double Ninth Festival. People came to the Tengwangge tourist area in Nanchang, Jiangxi, and climbed high to pray. <a target='_blank' href=https://news.cctv.com/2022/10/04/'/'><p class=

  Data Map: Double Ninth Festival. People came to the Tengwangge tourist area in Nanchang, Jiangxi, and climbed high to pray. China News Service reporter Jiang Tao photo

  Regarding the origin of the name of the Double Ninth Festival, Cheng Peng said that in the Book of Changes, the number of "nine" is yang, and the number of "nine nine" is heavy, so it is called "Chongyang"; It is also called "double ninth" because the day and the month all meet nine.

  When can the origin of the festival be traced back?

  According to Cheng Peng, the existing written records about the custom of Double Ninth Festival were first found in Ji Qiu Ji in Lu Chunqiu, which recorded the activities of the ancients in offering sacrifices to the heavenly emperor and ancestors in September.

  According to textual research, the origin of the Double Ninth Festival can be traced back to ancient times, when there were ritual activities of worshipping the gods and ancestors in the season and autumn. In the Han Dynasty, the custom of Chongyang was further popularized.

  Is it related to the ancient ceremony of offering sacrifices to the "fire"?

  It is said that one of the prototypes of the Double Ninth Festival is the ancient ritual of offering sacrifices to the "fire".

  Cheng Peng said that "Fire" (Antares) is the time coordinate used by the ancients to determine the signs of seasonal production and seasonal life. In ancient times, according to the orbit and position of the sun, the moon and the stars, people divided the astrology near the ecliptic into 28 groups, commonly known as "Twenty-eight Hostages".

  In the east, the horn, the horn, the room, the heart, the tail and the dustpan form a complete dragon-shaped astrology (seven nights in black dragon). In the season when the "fire" in the autumn and the autumn retires, people should hold corresponding farewell ceremonies.

Data Map: The picture shows the people expressing their blessings on the Double Ninth Festival according to the Qin ceremony, antique system and traditional Chinese etiquette. <a target='_blank' href=https://news.cctv.com/2022/10/04/'/'><p class=

  Data Map: The picture shows the people expressing their blessings on the Double Ninth Festival according to the Qin ceremony, antique system and traditional Chinese etiquette. China News Service reporter Zhang Tianfu photo

  With the development of society, people have a new understanding of the seasons, and the ceremony of offering sacrifices to Vulcan in September gradually declined.

  How deep is the connotation of the Double Ninth Festival?

  The Double Ninth Festival is a festival with profound connotations. As time goes by, its customs are constantly enriched and developed.

  Cheng Peng explained that the written record of the name "Double Ninth Festival" began in the Three Kingdoms period. During the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the festive atmosphere became stronger, and there were written records of chrysanthemum appreciation and drinking customs.

  For example, Tao Yuanming said in the preface to the poem "Nine Days of Idleness": "I am idle and love the name of nine. Autumn chrysanthemum is full of gardens, but it is awkward, and it is empty for Jiuhua, and it is cherished by words. "

  In the Tang Dynasty, the Double Ninth Festival was designated as an official festival. From then on, the court and the people celebrated the Double Ninth Festival together and held various activities during the festival. In the Song Dynasty, the Double Ninth Festival was more lively. The Dream of China in Tokyo recorded the grand occasion of the Double Ninth Festival in the Northern Song Dynasty.

  How did the ancients celebrate the Double Ninth Festival?

  Chongyang can be regarded as one of the landmarks in the transition of autumn and winter in people’s lives, and festival customs are carried out around people’s feelings at this season.

Data Map: Flying kites in Hanfu Girls' Double Ninth Festival. Liu kegeng photo

  Data Map: Flying kites in Hanfu Girls’ Double Ninth Festival. Liu kegeng photo

  It is an important custom of this traditional festival to climb high and look far. Cheng Peng said that the custom of climbing on Chongyang Mountain mainly stems from the climate characteristics at this time and the ancient people’s worship of mountains. In ancient times, there were customs such as climbing to pray for blessings, worshipping gods and ancestors, and drinking and praying for longevity on the Double Ninth Festival.

  In the Qing Dynasty, it was a custom for Beijing to celebrate the Double Ninth Festival by sticking chrysanthemum branches and leaves on doors and windows, "to remove evil and filth to attract good luck".

  What’s so particular about Chongyang cake?

  Chongyang cake is one of the delicacies at this time. It is also called flower cake, chrysanthemum cake and five-color cake, and the system is arbitrary. Cheng Peng said that the exquisite Chongyang cake should be made into nine layers, like a pagoda, with two lambs on it, so as to conform to the meaning of Chongyang (sheep).

  Sometimes, people will put a little red paper flag (instead of cornus) on the Chongyang cake and light candles. Replace the meaning of "climbing" with "lighting a lamp" and "eating cake".

  Nowadays, there are still no fixed varieties of Chongyang cakes, and the soft cakes eaten in various places on the Double Ninth Festival are called Chongyang cakes.

  What is the meaning of chrysanthemum wine?

  In addition to all kinds of cakes, chrysanthemum wine is also popular with people.

Data map: Children and the elderly make Chongyang cakes together. Photo by Meng Delong

  Data map: Children and the elderly make Chongyang cakes together. Photo by Meng Delong

  Cheng Peng introduced that chrysanthemum wine was regarded as an "auspicious wine" for double ninth festival in ancient times. Chrysanthemum wine is a medicinal liquor, with a slightly bitter taste, which can make people clear their eyes and wake up after drinking, and has auspicious meaning of dispelling disasters and praying for blessings.

  Why wear a cornus?

  Cheng Peng said that among the many customs of the Double Ninth Festival, the custom of inserting Evodia rutaecarpa is relatively widespread, which is mainly popular in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, Huaihe River and Yangtze River Basin.

  Evodia rutaecarpa and chrysanthemum morifolium were very common in the Tang Dynasty. It is said that cornus has a strong fragrance, which has the functions of improving eyesight and refreshing brain, and can eliminate food stagnation and treat cold and heat.

  The ancients believed that climbing a mountain and inserting dogwood on the Double Ninth Festival could drive away insects, damp and wind evil. So he put cornus on his arm or ground it in a sachet, and put it in his head. Most of them are worn by women and children, and men in some places also wear them.

  How can traditional festivals be passed down?

  The ancients had the custom of feasting and praying for longevity on the Double Ninth Festival, which pinned people’s wishes for the health and longevity of the elderly, while activities such as climbing mountains and flying paper kites also reflected people’s wishes for health and longevity.

  Cheng Peng said that now the Double Ninth Festival is also a festival for the elderly, which is endowed with the connotation of respecting the elderly. The inheritance of festivals should not only follow the cultural core of ancient customs, but also conform to contemporary values.

  He believes that feasting for the elderly, drinking and praying for longevity, or taking the elderly to climb mountains appropriately, enjoying chrysanthemums, drinking chrysanthemum tea or chrysanthemum wine, eating Chongyang cake, etc. are all important forms of inheriting the custom of Chongyang. (End)